Drowning will be defined as death resulting from suffocation, especially from submersion in water.
Whenever there is water people can drown. Mostly drowning results from
boat accidents, from swimming or playing in or near water or from
falling of a dock into the water. The most frequent cases of drowning
occurs in home; small children whose mothers leave them alone in water
Guidelines for Personal Water Safety
Learn to swim well enough to survive in
Never swim alone and swim only with a
buddy who has the ability to help when necessary.
Swim only in supervised areas. Children
should be supervised at all times.
Know your limitations and do not
overestimate your ability.
Stay out of water when over heated and
immediately after eating.
Stay out of water during electrical
Dive only into known waters of
Do not substitute inflated tubes, air
mattresses or other artificial supports for swimming ability.
Always swim a safe distance away from
diving boards and platforms.
Avoid long periods of immersion and
overexposure to the sun.
Call for help only when you really need
In addition to these guidelines it is always better
to know how to administer artificial
respiration and how to make a reaching rescue.
CAUSE of immediate death is lack of oxygen, (asphyxiation) either through the inhalation of large volumes of water into the lungs or via laryngospasm (muscle spasms of the throat and airway). In this situation, the victim suffocates with "dry lungs". These "dry
drowning" account for approximately 10% of all drowning.
Death from drowning can occur later (within 24 hours after injury) as a complication of drowning, known as POST IMMERSION SYNDROME. This refers to a delayed injury to the lungs that leads to an increase in fluid within the lung tissue. Due to these delayed effects, near drowning victims MUST be admitted to the hospital for close observation and treatment.
Methods to Rescue a Drowning or Swimming victim in Trouble
- Extend an oar to the victim while lying
on any stationary object that gives you safety.
- Through clothes to the victim as a means
to bridge the gap.
- If no clothes or objects of extension
are available an arm or leg plus a tight grip, may save a life.
- A swimming rescue should be used only if
no other means of rescue is possible and that no one should
attempt it if has had no training for it.
If the victim is not breathing,
give artificial respiration immediately (See Artificial
Attempts to drain water from the
victim are of doubtful value. The prone position (referring to the
position of the body when lying face downward) is superior to the
supine position (lying flat on the back) with respect to draining
of water from the lungs (See Figures Below).
Since fresh water is hypotonic and and
hypertonic, the patho-physiology of drowning is altogether different
and treatment varies accordingly.
Ant Tart 1M.
Carbo Veg 200C,1M.